与 goquery 集成

概述

使用 Go 写爬虫程序往往会用到 goquery,本文给出 goquery 与 req 结合来实现更健壮,更容易排障的爬虫示例。

代码示例

package main

import (
  "bytes"
  "errors"
  "fmt"
  "github.com/PuerkitoBio/goquery"
  "github.com/imroc/req/v3"
  "log"
  "strings"
)

var globalClient *req.Client

func init() {
  globalClient = req.C().
    // Enable dump at the request-level for each request, and only
    // temporarily stores the dump content in memory, so we can call
    // resp.Dump() to get the dump content when needed in response
    // middleware.
    EnableDumpEachRequest().
    OnAfterResponse(func(client *req.Client, resp *req.Response) error {
      if resp.Err != nil { // Ignore when there is an underlying error, e.g. network error.
        return nil
      }
      // Treat non-successful responses as errors, record raw dump content in error message.
      if !resp.IsSuccess() { // Status code is not between 200 and 299.
        resp.Err = fmt.Errorf("bad response, raw content:\n%s", resp.Dump())
      }
      return nil
    })
}

func crawl(url string, callback func(doc *goquery.Document) error) error {
  // Send request.
  resp, err := globalClient.R().Get(url)
  if err != nil {
    return err
  }

  // Pass resp.Body to goquery.
  doc, err := goquery.NewDocumentFromReader(resp.Body)
  if err != nil { // Append raw dump content to error message if goquery parse failed to help troubleshoot.
    return fmt.Errorf("failed to parse html: %s, raw content:\n%s", err.Error(), resp.Dump())
  }
  err = callback(doc)
  if err != nil {
    err = fmt.Errorf("%s, raw content:\n%s", err.Error(), resp.Dump())
  }
  return err
}

func main() {
  // Crawl the weekly github trending page and print it out.
  err := crawl("https://github.com/trending?since=weekly", func(doc *goquery.Document) error {
    buf := new(bytes.Buffer)
    doc.Find(".Box .Box-row").Each(func(i int, s *goquery.Selection) {
      href, ok := s.Find("h1 a").First().Attr("href")
      if !ok || href == "" {
        return
      }
      repo := strings.TrimPrefix(href, "/")
      starsTotal := s.Find("div.f6 a").First().Text()
      starsWeek := s.Find("div.f6 span").Last().Text()

      starsTotal = strings.TrimSpace(starsTotal)
      starsWeek = strings.TrimSpace(starsWeek)

      buf.WriteString(fmt.Sprintf("No.%d %s\t%s stars total\t%s\n", i+1, repo, starsTotal, starsWeek))
    })
    if buf.Len() == 0 {
      return errors.New("failed to parse trending")
    }
    fmt.Println("GitHub Trending:")
    fmt.Println(buf.String())
    return nil
  })

  if err != nil {
    log.Fatal(err)
  }
}
  • EnableDumpEachRequest 是便捷的语法糖,内部实际是利用 Request 中间件,为每个请求单独开启 dump,暂存 dump 内容到内存,在需要用的时候调用 Response.Dump() 来获取。
  • 使用 OnAfterResponse 添加 Response 中间件,统一处理异常,将非正常响应(状态码不在 200~299 之间)均认为是错误,将dump原始内容记录到error中,抛给上层调用方。
  • 虽然默认会自动读取 Body,但 resp.Body 会自动还原,可以直接传给 goquery 进行解析。
  • 如果 goquery 解析 html 报错,通常是 github 自身故障,或代理异常,此时将 dump 下来的原始内容打印出来以便排查问题。
  • 当没有解析出 trending 数据时,可能是 github 页面布局有改动,将 dump 内容记录到 error 中以便排查问题。
  • 该示例只爬了一个页面,由于利用中间件对所有请求进行了统一的异常处理,所以可以很容易扩展其它页面的爬取,只需专注业务逻辑。

运行结果

$ go run .
GitHub Trending:
No.1 toeverything/AFFiNE        7,334 stars total       3,269 stars this week
No.2 dragonflydb/dragonfly      10,613 stars total      1,365 stars this week
No.3 novuhq/novu        7,488 stars total       2,432 stars this week
No.4 withastro/astro    16,101 stars total      2,688 stars this week
No.5 craftzdog/dotfiles-public  3,240 stars total       582 stars this week
No.6 punk-security/dnsReaper    788 stars total 466 stars this week
No.7 MatrixTM/MHDDoS    6,018 stars total       974 stars this week
No.8 moyix/fauxpilot    5,090 stars total       1,137 stars this week
No.9 duckdb/duckdb      5,926 stars total       222 stars this week
No.10 jina-ai/discoart  2,496 stars total       489 stars this week
No.11 pesser/stable-diffusion   607 stars total 173 stars this week
No.12 termux/termux-app 14,817 stars total      269 stars this week
No.13 TheAlgorithms/Python      142,155 stars total     1,076 stars this week
No.14 iptv-org/iptv     54,544 stars total      896 stars this week
No.15 ethereum/solidity 17,896 stars total      142 stars this week
No.16 facebook/folly    22,958 stars total      123 stars this week
No.17 pointfreeco/swift-composable-architecture 6,713 stars total       83 stars this week
No.18 actions/runner-images     6,410 stars total       69 stars this week
No.19 raysan5/raylib    10,367 stars total      135 stars this week
No.20 gofiber/fiber     21,691 stars total      365 stars this week
No.21 TeamNewPipe/NewPipe       20,417 stars total      349 stars this week
No.22 coder/coder       1,723 stars total       266 stars this week
No.23 MiCode/Xiaomi_Kernel_OpenSource   6,706 stars total       36 stars this week
No.24 utmapp/UTM        14,608 stars total      406 stars this week
No.25 bitwarden/server  10,260 stars total      53 stars this week

测试异常情况

尝试修改下 URL 来触发内容解析异常,比如改成 https://www.baidu.com,然后再运行看下效果:

$ go run .
2022/08/16 20:55:16 failed to parse trending, raw content:
GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: www.baidu.com
User-Agent: req/v3 (https://github.com/imroc/req)
Accept-Encoding: gzip

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Cache-Control: no-cache
Connection: keep-alive
Content-Length: 227
Content-Type: text/html
Date: Tue, 16 Aug 2022 12:55:16 GMT
P3p: CP=" OTI DSP COR IVA OUR IND COM "
P3p: CP=" OTI DSP COR IVA OUR IND COM "
Pragma: no-cache
Server: BWS/1.1
Set-Cookie: BD_NOT_HTTPS=1; path=/; Max-Age=300
Set-Cookie: BIDUPSID=0021315124C1DCBD6D6542551E4524D3; expires=Thu, 31-Dec-37 23:55:55 GMT; max-age=2147483647; path=/; domain=.baidu.com
Set-Cookie: PSTM=1660654516; expires=Thu, 31-Dec-37 23:55:55 GMT; max-age=2147483647; path=/; domain=.baidu.com
Set-Cookie: BAIDUID=0021315124C1DCBD79E08683C3E42600:FG=1; max-age=31536000; expires=Wed, 16-Aug-23 12:55:16 GMT; domain=.baidu.com; path=/; version=1; comment=bd
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=0
Traceid: 1660654516037233921014200821962745403164
X-Frame-Options: sameorigin
X-Ua-Compatible: IE=Edge,chrome=1

<html>
<head>
        <script>
                location.replace(location.href.replace("https://","http://"));
        </script>
</head>
<body>
        <noscript><meta http-equiv="refresh" content="0;url=http://www.baidu.com/"></noscript>
</body>
</html>